“Jeepers Creepers” (1938) Artie Shaw and Tony Pastor

“Jeepers Creepers”

Composed by Harry Warren (music) and Johnny Mercer (lyric); arranged by Jerry Gray.

Recorded from an NBC network radio broadcast by Artie Shaw and His Orchestra emanating from the Blue Room of Hotel Lincoln in New York City on December 29, 1938.

Artie Shaw, clarinet, directing: John Best, first trumpet; Chuck Peterson and Bernie Privin, trumpets; George Arus, first trombone; Les Jenkins and Harry Rodgers, trombones; Les Robinson, first alto saxophone; Hank Freeman, alto saxophone; Tony Pastor, tenor saxophone and vocal; Georgie Auld, tenor saxophone; Bob Kitsis, piano; Al Avola, guitar; Sid Weiss; bass; George Wettling, drums.

The story: 

If Not Buddy, Then Who?

Who was the drummer on the Shaw NBC network radio broadcast (of December 29, 1938, from the Blue Room of Hotel Lincoln in New York City) recording of “Jeepers Creepers”?  I was troubled by the assertion that Buddy Rich was the drummer on that performance for a very long time.

The beginning of this inquiry must start in the middle 1950s, when RCA Victor released the two LP set of live broadcast performances entitled Artie Shaw in the Blue Room and Café Rouge, LPT-6000. In the liner notes, which are quite good and were written by George T. Simon (though not credited to him on reissues of this set), we find this statement describing the drumming on “Jeepers Creepers”: “Drummer Buddy Rich was making his debut with the band, providing a light, swinging drum style the Shavians had never had before. If you listen closely, you can hear Buddy shouting encouragement in the background; he was then, as he is today, the kind of drummer who really makes musicians want to play.” (1) The drumming on “Jeepers Creepers” is zestful, and there indeed is someone’s voice present amidst the crowd noise on this recording, especially behind John Best’s trumpet solo. But were the drumming and voice Buddy Rich’s, as Mr. Simon said?

Post card from Hotel Lincoln – 1930s.

In 1991, singer Mel Torme’ published a biography of Buddy Rich: Traps The Drum Wonder. Torme’ was a capable drummer himself, and a longtime friend of Buddy Rich’s. He was also a rabid Artie Shaw fan, and a fairly good writer, though a somewhat less than rigorous scholar. But the whole point of his largely anecdotal book was to present Torme’ a forum to showcase his unique recollections of Buddy Rich. Torme’ reviewed in some detail the circumstances surrounding Rich’s joining the Shaw band in Traps at pages 40-41, yet he did not reach a conclusion as to when Rich joined. Instead he left things this way: “Does it matter, other than for the sake of historical accuracy, when or how Buddy joined Artie Shaw’s orchestra?  Not really.”  I respectfully disagree. The writing of history is like assembling a puzzle: one fact leads to another fact, and gradually a picture can be seen, and we get nearer to what actually happened.

I think it is also important to correct historical errors that may have been made years ago because of carelessness, or laziness. These errors continue to be perpetuated simply because people continue to uncritically accept them as facts, and repeat them. Few take the time to review the available objective evidence to determine if maybe things happened some other way. In most instances, there is ample objective evidence available to allow a careful review, and a judicious conclusion. Here is my review and conclusion of the available facts on this issue.

(The top of Hotel Lincoln 700 Eighth Avenue between 44th and 45th, now called the Row Hotel.)

The top of Hotel Lincoln 700 Eighth Avenue between 44th and 45th, now called the Row Hotel.

I cannot nor will I ever deny Buddy Rich’s greatness as a drummer. Nor will I ever minimize his large contribution to the success of Artie Shaw’s classic 1939 band. (See my post about Rich’s time with Shaw by clicking on the link below.) What bothered me for so long is that the drumming on Shaw’s “Jeepers Creepers” never sounded to me like Buddy’s. I have listened carefully to Buddy’s work from the 1938-1939 period, with both the Shaw band, and immediately before, with Bunny Berigan’s band. Although Buddy’s drumming was evolving throughout the period when “Jeepers Creepers” was recorded (December of 1938), his basic style of playing was quite recognizable by then. No one familiar with Buddy’s work at that time would say that he was the drummer on the Shaw broadcast performances of “Sobbin’ Blues,” “My Reverie,” or “Non-Stop Flight” (all also on LPT-6000). Those were the work of Cliff Leeman. Likewise, no one would say that Buddy propelled the Shaw band through the RCA Bluebird recordings of “A Room with a View,” “Jungle Drums,” or “It Had to Be You.” Those were the work of George Wettling.

If the drummer on “Jeepers Creepers” was not Buddy Rich, then who was it?

Artie Shaw and Cliff Leeman – 1938.

Before we get too far into the process of identifying the playing of various drummers, I should point out that Shaw’s drummer throughout almost all of 1938 was Cliff Leeman. (Pictured at right with Shaw in 1938.) Leeman had been hired by Shaw in early 1937, when Artie made the transition from his string quartet band (whose drummer had been George Wettling), to his thirteen-piece conventional swing band. Leeman’s skill in driving the Shaw band increased steadily until late in 1938, when a problem developed. Leeman himself later told a historian that he was forced to leave the Shaw band in December of 1938 because of “the world’s worse case of piles.”

This development took place at a critical time for Artie Shaw. At the end of 1938, his career was beginning to take a large leap upward. His recording of “Begin the Beguine,” made in July of 1938, was in the early stages of becoming a massive hit. He and his band had landed a sponsored network radio show. They were contracted to make a couple of musical short films, and would soon be signed by M-G-M to make a feature film in Hollywood. They were in the middle of a lengthy stay at the Blue Room of Hotel Lincoln in Manhattan, from where they were being broadcast over NBC radio very frequently. Theaters and ballrooms all over the USA were clamoring for the Shaw band. In order to meet the new demands being put on him and his band, Artie needed the best  band he could present. A strong, swinging drummer was essential.

Artie Shaw and Paul Whiteman – Carnegie Hall -Christmas night 1938. Was Shaw’s appearance there quid pro quo for borrowing Whiteman’s drummer?

Shaw began searching for the right drummer for his band immediately after Leeman left in early December. It soon became obvious to him that this search might take a bit of time. In order to buy a little time to complete the search, he approached George Wetting, who was then working quite successfully with Paul Whiteman. Shaw, Whiteman and Wettling discussed the situation. Would it be possible for Shaw to borrow Wettling for a couple of weeks until he could find the right drummer to join his band? Whiteman was a benevolent man, but also a very good businessman. My informed speculation is that an agreement was worked out as follows: Wettling would be available for Shaw’s use for most of December. In exchange, Shaw would appear as a featured soloist with the Whiteman orchestra at its Christmas concert at Carnegie Hall. (Shaw is shown above left appearing with Whiteman at that concert.)

While all of this was going on, Shaw hired a new jazz tenor saxophone soloist – Georgie Auld, who had made quite a name for himself in the almost two years he had worked with Bunny Berigan. Auld reported for work with Shaw on December 16. He immediately became aware of Shaw’s drummer situation. (Auld knew Wettling well: they had worked together in the Berigan band for almost a year.) Auld also knew Berigan’s current drummer, Buddy Rich, very well. They had grown up together in Brooklyn, and Auld was responsible for getting him an audition with Berigan, which resulted in him being hired by Bunny. Auld mentioned Rich to Shaw. The issue of Rich not being able to read drum music came up. Shaw was dubious. Soon however, Rich did audition for Shaw and Artie was impressed. Shaw asked Rich about his inability to read music. What Buddy told Artie is detailed below. Rich was hired by Shaw, and immediately gave Berigan his two-week notice.He would join the Shaw band during the first week of January 1939.

George Wettling.

My opinion is that the drummer on Artie Shaw’s “Jeepers Creepers” is George Wettling.  (Shown at right.) Here are the reasons: To my ears, Wettling was definitely the drummer on the recordings of Shaw’s CBS Melody and Madness radio shows of 12/25/38 and 1/1/39.  Likewise, he was clearly present (there is no confusion about this) on “I Cover the Waterfront,” from the same 12/29/38 Blue Room broadcast as “Jeepers Creepers.” Indeed, it doesn’t appear (aurally) that Rich’s drumming is a part of the Shaw band sound until the Melody and Madness broadcast on 1/8/39.

Immediately after the 1/1/39 Melody and Madness program, Shaw took a few days off, and flew to Cuba for a holiday. He returned in time for the 1/8/39 Melody and Madness show. The Shaw band evidently did not broadcast from the Blue Room of Hotel Lincoln during this interval. It is likely however, that for at least a part of this time, the band rehearsed, probably under the direction of Jerry Gray, Shaw’s chief arranger. At any such rehearsals, Rich would have been present and had time to listen to the band, and acclimate himself. Shaw often stated that he asked Rich if he could read drum music when they first met, and Rich told him that he couldn’t, and didn’t need to. He said he needed only to listen to the band play its current repertoire once or twice, and he’d then know what to play. That is exactly what he did, and there was never any problem with him not knowing what to play with the Shaw band.

Below is a photo of Artie Shaw in the Blue Room of Hotel Lincoln in December of 1938.

Artie Shaw at Hotel Lincoln in New York City – December 1938. The audience was close to the      music.

The above analysis leaves open the possibility that Rich could have sat-in with the Shaw band when it broadcast “Jeepers Creepers” on 12/29/38, using Wettling’s equipment, for “Jeepers Creepers” only. I think that this is unlikely. In my 50-plus years of learning about Artie Shaw, I came to know one thing about him early on: he was an absolutely driven perfectionist. He knew how to effectively rehearse a band, and did so carefully, even painstakingly. He would present a piece of music publicly only after he was completely confident that his band was prepared to perform it at an optimum level. It is extremely unlikely that Shaw would have let any drummer, even Buddy Rich, who then was relatively unknown even in jazz circles, sit-in with his band for one tune on a nationwide radio broadcast at this critical juncture of his career. In addition, to do this would have been rather awkward, because it would have necessitated Wettling vacating the drums he had just played on “I Cover the Waterfront” to allow Rich to sit down, and get set to play, all within the span of a few seconds between tunes on a radio broadcast where dead air and extraneous noises were big no-nos.

Below: Tony Pastor, Artie Shaw and Geroge Wettling – at the Blue Room of Hotel Lincoln NYC, December 1938. The face behind Pastor is that of trombonist George Arus. The trumpeter behind Shaw’s right forearm is Bernie Privin. Trombonist Les Jenkins’s bald pate and trumpeter Chuck Peterson are in the background on the left edge of the photo.

Tony Pastor, Artie Shaw and Geroge Wettling – at the Blue Room of Hotel Lincoln NYC, December 1938. The face behind Pastor is that of trombonist George Arus. The trumpeter behind Shaw’s right forearm is Bernie Privin. Trombonist Les Jenkins’s bald pate and trumpeter Chuck Peterson are in the background on the left edge of the photo.

Shaw was only at the beginning his rise to stardom on December 29, 1938 after two and a half years of backbreaking work. This would have made him reluctant to conduct an awkward audition of a drummer before a national radio audience, and jeopardize his hard-earned success.

Shaw and Pastor – 1939.

The music: This is a joyous performance of the novelty tune “Jeepers Creepers” composed by Harry Warren and Johnny Mercer for the 1938 Warner Brothers film Going Places. It was introduced in that film by Louis Armstrong and Maxine Sullivan.

Artie Shaw had the perfect performer to handle tunes like this, his long-time musical associate Tony Pastor (real name Antonio Prestritto). (Shaw and Pastor are pictured at left in 1939.) They had met years before in a band called Irving Aaronson and His Commanders. That was an “entertaining” band where the musicians sang, danced and did comedy, in addition to playing their instruments. Pastor sang in an impish fashion that had much in common with humorous turns taken by Louis Armstrong and Fats Waller when they sang. He was also an excellent tenor saxophonist who could play jazz. Audiences loved Pastor’s singing. After he and Shaw parted company in late 1939, Pastor led his own band with considerable success for many years. After his bandleading days, Tony Pastor worked in Las Vegas as the head man in a singing group called The Pastors, with his sons Tony, Jr. and Guy.

Trumpeter John Best – 1938.

This performance of “Jeepers Creepers” captures the electricity that moved back-and-forth between Artie Shaw and his band, and the overflow crowds that packed the Blue Room of Hotel Lincoln in New York for the entirety of their run there (October 26, 1938 to February 2, 1939). The introduction consists of a fanfare played by the band which leads to a sequence with Shaw’s clarinet and George Wettling’s tom-tom. The first sixteen bars of the first chorus is a simple and swinging antiphonal melody exposition with the muted brass that carry the melody being answered by the saxophones. The reeds then take over on the bridge, and they and the now open brass complete the reprise of the melody to complete the first chorus. A cymbal crash and rhythmic interlude bring vocalist Tony Pastor to the microphone. Pastor kids his way through Mercer’s humorous lyric while Shaw provides a jet-propelled clarinet obbligato behind Tony’s singing.

It is during this vocal chorus that we hear how differently Wettling played from Rich. His work on his high-hats especially, and snare drum are completely his own. The way he uses his bass drum at the bottom of his drumming differs from Rich’s frequent use (then) of bass drum offbeats. Wettling’s use of his other cymbals in the final chorus, and his high-hat playing behind John Best’s trumpet solo are also evidence of drumming quite unlike Rich’s. (John Best is shown above right – 1938.)

Lastly, the voice we hear when Best is playing his trumpet solo is not that of Buddy Rich. Rich had a most distinctive, resonant voice which can be heard on many recordings. The voice on this recording does not have any Richian characteristics.

(1)The original boxed-set issue of LPT-6000 did credit George T. Simon for these liner notes.

The recording presented with this post was digitally transferred and remastered by Mike Zirpolo.

Here is a link that examines the musical relationship between Artie Shaw and Buddy Rich. It contains several great examples of Buddy’s drumming, which is quite different from George Wettling’s drumming.



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  1. A fine history lesson and I hope it inspires people to listen to Buddy Rich’s you tube videos and recordings. I was a student adviser at Rutgers University in New Brunswick NJ in the late 1960’s for concerts and we put together a bill of Buddy’s Band, Blood Sweat and Tears and Nina Simon (Who did not show up sadly). To watch Buddy Rich play up close as I did and observe rehearsal setup etc. was a life changing event for me. Buddy passed away in 1987 but at this point in time he was still absolutely amazing with blinding speed and yet still under control and tasteful in his solos. It was raining that day but no one left and Blood Sweat and Tears also put on a great show. This was the final transition time period from Big Bands to Rock and before music deteriorated later on in quality and respect for the basics of composition and melody. The fact that Buddy could not read music fluently is a minor point as learning by ear was quite common among many of the great Artists I’ve had the pleasure to know and work with.

  2. Very interesting and wonderful listening to the Shaw band live. Per “Jack Teagarden’s Music”, Howard Waters’ discography from 1960, the Whiteman Christmas Concert in 1938 was also Big T’s final appearance as a member of Whiteman’s band before he started his own. It would be great if you could do a feature on a Teagarden recording some time. Your blog is much appreciated.

  3. Reinhard F. Scheer-Hennings and Dennis M. Spragg (in cooperation with The University of Arizona) believe that the drummer from 12/23/1938 through the end of the year is Sammy Weiss.

    They write “There has been some confusion as to when Buddy Rich actually started playing on a daily basis with Artie Shaw and his Orchestra. December 1938 broadcasts offer evidence that
    Rich did not join the band (was not present) on a full-time basis until January 1939. Upon
    investigation by the authors, we have ascertained with some probability that George Wettling
    departed from the band following the December 22, 1938 broadcast and he was replaced
    temporarily by Sammy Weiss until Buddy Rich arrived. Our reasoning is in part based upon
    an interview with Bob Kitsis where he explicitly mentioned Weiss. Kitsis described Weiss as
    “loud” and the December 23, 1938 broadcast recording supports the presence of a loud
    drummer. So we have provisionally added Sammy Weiss, drums, to the personnel at this
    point pending further evidence. In addition, it is the opinion of Paul Whiteman discographers
    that Weiss was present as a member of Paul Whiteman’s orchestra for the Whiteman
    performance at Carnegie Hall on December 25, 1938.”


    To me, admittedly no expert, the drummer on the 12/30 broadcast is neither Wettling nor Rich and is different than that of 12/29.

  4. With the utmost respect to my colleagues Dennis Spragg, Reinhard Scheer-Hennings and possibly Keith Pawlak, whose opinions are expressed in the language quoted above by Bob Roberts, I offer some thoughts in response to the assertion that: “Wettling (with some probability) departed from the (Shaw) band following the December 22, 1938 broadcast and he was temporarily replaced by Sammy Weiss until Buddy Rich arrived.” The fact that Bob Kitsis, Shaw’s pianist then, stated that Sammy Weiss played with the Shaw band, presumably after December 22, 1938 and before Buddy Rich joined (which was after January 1, 1939), does not mean that he (Weiss) was the only drummer to play with the Shaw band during that entire time period, and it does not necessarily mean that Wettling “departed.”

    In order to once again study the drumming on many recordings made by Artie Shaw from three venues in December of 1938 (Hotel Lincoln, the Melody and Madness radio show, and the one RCA-Bluebird recording session made in that time span), I programmed in chronological order over two dozen Shaw recordings made then, and listened to them repeatedly, paying special attention to the drumming on each recording. My conclusion based on that primary evidence is that George Wettling was the drummer on all Shaw recordings from early December until at least December 30, 1938.

    Wettling certainly was not totally replaced after December 22. If other drummers performed with the Shaw band then, and it is likely that several drummers, even possibly Buddy Rich, sat in with the Shaw band during this time period, it was probably only during non-broadcast dance sets (of which there were many) at the Blue Room of Hotel Lincoln. It was not unusual for this sort of auditioning/subbing/sitting-in to take place on a dance job during the swing era, especially if a personnel change was in the offing, which as we know was the case.

    But on network radio broadcasts, it was another story. As I mentioned in the post above, which discussed the December 29 Shaw broadcast recording of “Jeepers Creeper,” Shaw would not likely have been conducting any auditions for new drummers on any such broadcasts. Moreover, whoever played drums on Shaw’s network radio broadcasts had to be familiar, at least to some degree, with the music the band was playing. That of course could be acquired, to some extent, through rehearsal. But it could also be acquired as a result of simply playing with the Shaw band for a period of time, which Wettling had done for most of that December. In listening to recordings made all through December by the Shaw band, one can hear Wettling settling in and becoming more comfortable, and more aggressive, toward the end of the month.

    Sammy Weiss was a capable drummer, but not in the same league as George Wettling when it came to swinging a band. And the Shaw band swings mightily on many recordings through December, right up to and including the Blue Room broadcast from December 30. There is also reference to Bob Kitsis’s comment that Sammy Weiss’s drumming with the Shaw band was “loud.” That may be, but no unduly loud drumming is apparent on any of the recordings of the Shaw band from the last two weeks of December. The only drumming on recordings made during that time period that could possibly be used to corroborate Kitsis’s statement are the ones made on December 30. The reason the drumming could be termed loud on those recordings is that the drummer’s snare drum is irritatingly over-recorded on the December 30 selections. That was the fault of the NBC technician who failed to balance the various instruments in Shaw’s band for that broadcast, not the drummer, whoever he was.

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